PECUNIA Resource Use Measurement (PECUNIA RUM) Instrument


The PECUNIA Resource Use Measurement (PECUNIA RUM) Instrument is an internationally standardised, harmonised and validated, generic, self-reported RUM instrument. It measures resource use in all relevant sectors for costing from a societal perspective in the adult population: health and social care, education, (criminal) justice, productivity losses, and informal care.


Rapidly ageing societies, growing populations and new health technologies have dramatically increased EU healthcare costs: Between 1972 and 2010, public health expenditure has risen from 4.5% to 8% of national income across the EU. Especially long-term and multi-morbidities as well as mental health diseases pose a major financial burden to European healthcare systems.

PECUNIA aims to tackle this challenge by developing new standardised, harmonised and validated methods for the assessment of costs and outcomes of healthcare interventions within and across European countries.

It is consistent with the harmonised PECUNIA Costing Concept (PECUNIA Care Atom, PECUNIA Service Lists, PECUNIA Coding System) and therefore with other PECUNIA Costing Tools (PECUNIA Reference Unit Costs (RUC) Templates, PECUNIA RUC Compendium) to achieve cross-country and cross-sectoral comparability by referring to activity-based rather than linguistic equivalence of services.

Design and Development

The PECUNIA RUM was developed as a 37-page pen and paper questionnaire in English by the scientific partners of the PECUNIA Consortium between mid-2019 and June 2021. It has a modular structure of 9 sections covering questions related to:

  • Place of living and overnight stays (Section A)
  • Non-residential health and social care (Section B)
  • Medication (Section C)
  • Unpaid help (informal care) (Section D)
  • Education (Section E)
  • Employment and productivity (Section F)
  • Safety and justice system (Section G)
  • Out-of-pocket and other expenses (Section H)
  • Final remarks (Section I).

While Sections A, B, C, D, E, G, H were all developed newly, the section on ’Employment and productivity’ (Section F, the IPCQ PECUNIA) is based on the existing IPCQ instrument. The different modules have been harmonised with each other and development included the following steps: a comprehensive scoping review to identify existing RUM recommendations, a focus group of health economists to provide feedback on the first draft, an initial wording review, a professional English language editing, piloting in (online) interviews with former mental health care users and carers, and a formal translatability assessment.

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Delivery methods

The PECUNIA RUM is currently validated for use by pen and paper administration.

The instrument can also be completed via an interview with a researcher present. Alternatively, it can also be sent to respondents by post to be completed independently.

If you are planning to migrate the PECUNIA RUM into a digital format (such as collecting responses via a website or mobile app), please seek guidance during your licence application to ensure a faithful migration.

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Using the PECUNIA RUM with other PECUNIA costing tools

The PECUNIA RUM was developed in conjunction with the PECUNIA costing templates and the PECUNIA RUC Compendium with the aim of facilitating the comparability of resource use and cost data. The PECUNIA costing templates are a Microsoft Excel©-based set of tools that enable researchers to calculate unit costs that can be compared across countries and sectors, using standardized and scientifically validated methods. The PECUNIA costing templates can be accessed here. The PECUNIA RUC compendium is a Microsoft Excel®-based multi-sectoral, multi-country database of unit costs comparable across countries and sectors and developed using standardized and scientifically validated methods (RUCs). Access and more information for the PECUNIA tools can be requested via the website of the PECUNIA project (

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The PECUNIA project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 779292.

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Licensing information

To obtain permissions to use the PECUNIA RUM, you will first need to complete and submit a copyright licence application. Please complete the online application form via Oxford University Innovation’s licensing portal. Fees for commercial use may be applicable and are subject to details provided within your licence application or follow-up communications. Anyone wishing to use the instrument for non-commercial research, healthcare and academic teaching activities can do so free-of-charge but must also apply for and be granted a licence to do so. Once your licence is granted, you will receive the PECUNIA RUM and any support documents you requested via email. If you have any licensing queries, please contact Oxford University Innovation’s Clinical Outcomes team via email at For questions about using the PECUNIA RUM, please contact us via email at

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References to the PECUNIA RUM

Please note that as part of the licensing terms and conditions, you will need to seek authorisation from us to replicate the PECUNIA RUM in a digital format or to include screenshots/copies of the instrument in research papers. When doing so, please reference the copyright message as within the PECUNIA RUM instrument: “© PECUNIA Consortium, 2021”

For references directly related to the research – please use “Pokhilenko, I., Janssen, L.M.M., Paulus, A.T.G. et al. Development of an Instrument for the Assessment of Health-Related Multi-sectoral Resource Use in Europe: The PECUNIA RUM. Appl Health Econ Health Policy (2023).”

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The PECUNIA Patient-Reported-Outcome-Measure-Mental Health Compendium (PECUNIA PROM-MH Compendium) is a Microsoft Excel©-based electronic library of non-disease specific PROMs used in MH research.

The PECUNIA PROM-MH Compendium provides meta-data information of existing, publicly available generic PROMs suitable for use in (mental) health research and their applicability in multi-sectoral, multi-national and multi-person (economic) evaluations.

Information about each instrument is organised in five sections:

  • BASIC CHARACTERISTICS (information on the year of publication, country (language) of origin, number of items, administration mode, other language versions, etc.);
  • SCORING (information on the level-sum scoring, standardised scoring, weighted preference-based scoring, availability of preference-based value sets, availability of mapping studies, etc.);
  • VALIDATION IN THE MENTAL HEALTH FIELD (information about validation studies for different mental disorders);
  • APPLICATION IN MULTI-SECTORAL, MULTI-NATIONAL, MULTI-PERSON (ECONOMIC) EVALUATIONS (information whether an instrument: i) has separate adult and child/adolescent versions available, ii) has a proxy-completion option available, iii) assesses outcomes beyond health, i.e. capabilities, iv) has multiple language versions available, v) has a preference-based value set available, and vi) has a preference-based value set available in more than one country);
  • OTHER (link to the manual and terms of use if available for the specific instrument).

The PECUNIA PROM-MH Compendium can be accessed as part of a licence application request under additional materials.

To find out more information, you can visit the PECUNIA Project page here.

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