The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ)
The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a short, 23-item, patient-reported outcome measure developed to assess participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions.
There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and keeping people active and participating in daily life (1-4). Testing the effectiveness of interventions which aim to impact upon activities and participation, however, can be challenging without the availability of a well-developed, valid and reliable instrument.
The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and is fully compliant with current best practice guidelines, such as those published by the FDA.
The Ox-PAQ was developed by researchers within the Health Services Research Unit, part of the Nuffield Department of Population Health at the University of Oxford.
The development of the OxPAQ was funded by the European Brain Council.
Use of Ox-PAQ
The primary use of the Ox-PAQ is intended to be in clinical trials and related forms of evaluation of interventions targeted at maintaining activity and participation. The latest progress on the instrument’s development and validation can be viewed at the University of Oxford Health Services Research Unit website:
Development stages of Ox-PAQ:
Ox-PAQ items, which had previously been informed using the nine chapters of the ICF, 41 patient interviews, expert reviews and 13 cognitive interviews , were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions; Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Participants also completed the MOS 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L. Consenting participants were also sent the OxPAQ items to complete again after a period of two weeks.
162 men and 172 women completed the survey achieving a response rate of 86.5%. The mean age of the sample was 60.06 years (SD 12.10).
- Routine Activities (14 items), assesses individuals’ capacity to engage in regular activities that form the basis of daily life.
- Emotional Well-Being (5 items), gives an indication of current mental health status.
- Social Engagement (4 items), reflects how well, or otherwise, individuals are able to maintain relationships, both personal and from a wider community perspective.
Internal reliability (n= 334) for the three domains was high (corrected item-total correlations 0.87-0.60, Cronbach’s α .81-.96). Good test-retest reliability was found among those who completed the Ox-PAQ again after a two week interval (n=127). Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.92.
Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ-5D-5L. Known-groups validity was demonstrated through ANOVA results indicating statistically significant differences between the three conditions for all three domains; Routine Activities, F(2, 311) = 45.66, p < .01; Emotional Well-Being, F(2, 330) = 10.64, p < .01; Social Engagement, F(2, 326) = 14.16, p < .01.
The responsiveness of the Ox-PAQ is currently being assessed in an online survey, the data from which will be published in due course.
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- Provencher V, Bier N, Audet T, Gagnon L. [Long-term effect of a cognitive intervention on learning and participation in a significant leisure activity in early dementia of Alzheimer type: a case study]. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2009;7(2):131–140. French.